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v:ext="edit" data="1"/> </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--> </head> <body bgcolor="white" link="#660000" vlink="#330066"> <center> <table width="630" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" style="border: 0 solid black;"><tr><td bgcolor="#fffffc"><div align="justify"> &nbsp;<br>&nbsp;<br> <div class=WordSection1> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-line-height-alt: 10.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:Symbol'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:center;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><span style='font-size:28.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:16.0pt;mso-ansi-language: EN-CA;mso-no-proof:yes'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:center;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><b><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><span style='font-size:26.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof:yes'>De la Wilno la Vilnius.&nbsp;<br>&nbsp;<br>Paralele istorice basarabene: 1812-2013<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:center;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><b><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><span style='font-size:26.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof:yes'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></b></p> <h1 align=right style='margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:right; mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-ansi-language: EN-CA;mso-no-proof:yes'>Vlad MISCHEVCA  <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Limba Romn&#259;</i></span><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-CA; font-weight:normal;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold;mso-no-proof:yes'>, Chi&#351;in&#259;u, 2014, anul XXIV, nr. 4<o:p></o:p></span></h1> <p class=MsoNormal align=right style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm; margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:right; mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><span style='mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof: yes'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=right style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm; margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:right; mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><span lang=FR style='mso-ansi-language:FR; mso-no-proof:yes'>&quot;Romnii, cu toate c&#259; sunt liberi, nu au ns&#259; &#351;i sentimentul libert&#259;&#355;ii. </span><span style='mso-ansi-language: EN-CA;mso-no-proof:yes'>Acesta nu vine de la natur&#259;, ci de la servitutea cu care au fost ap&#259;sa&#355;i &#351;i de la dominarea de care au fost umili&#355;i... <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=right style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm; margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:right; mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><span style='mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof: yes'>(<b>Dionisie Fotino</b>, 1818)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <h1 align=right style='margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:right; mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-ansi-language: EN-CA;font-weight:normal;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold;mso-no-proof:yes'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></h1> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-line-height-alt: 10.0pt'><span style='mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof:yes'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;text-indent:27.0pt;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><span style='font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof: yes'>Constatarea f&#259;cut&#259; acum dou&#259; secole, precum c&#259; nu avem <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> sentimentul libert&#259;&#355;ii </i> din cauza domin&#259;rii umilitoare a puterilor str&#259;ine, r&#259;mne actual&#259; &#351;i pentru romnii din Republica Moldova, care ncearc&#259; s&#259; se desprind&#259; de <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> sovietism </i> &#351;i de sechelele imperialismul rus.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;text-indent:27.0pt;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><span style='font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof: yes'>R&#259;mnem sub presiunea evenimentelor ce au precedat summit<i>-</i>ul istoric de la Vilnius, unde, la 29 noiembrie 2013, Republica Moldova a parafat Acordul de Asociere &#351;i Liber Schimb cu UE<i>.</i> Federa&#355;ia Rus&#259; a f&#259;cut presiuni pentru ca Azerbaidjanul s&#259; renun&#539;e, pe ultima sut&#259; de metri, la posibilitatea de a deveni membru asociat al Uniunii Europene. Pre&#351;edintele ucrainean V. Ianukovici adoptase o decizie nefericit&#259; de suspendare a procesului de semnare a Acordului de asociere cu UE. Iar, anterior, Armenia anun&#539;ase c&#259; nu va nainta pe calea integr&#259;rii europene. nseamn&#259; oare c&#259; summit-ul de la Vilnius a fost un <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> e&#351;ec </i> pentru Uniunea European&#259; &#351;i o <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> catastrof&#259; </i> pentru Republica Moldova?<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;text-indent:27.0pt;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><span style='font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof: yes'>Se vehiculeaz&#259; c&#259;, n disputa dintre Rusia &#537;i UE, Republica Moldova ar fi un <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> premiu nensemnat </i> (<i>The Economist</i>)<sup>1</sup>, totu&#351;i, destinul nostru nu poate fi pus totalmente n raport de rezultatul b&#259;t&#259;liei marilor puteri pentru statele CSI din fosta U.R.S.S. Viitorul Moldovei este legat indispensabil de Uniunea European&#259;, fiindc&#259; trecutul ne este european. Consider&#259;m c&#259; aderarea trebuie s&#259; cuprind&#259; gradual &#351;i factorul istorico-geografic al statelor aspirante. Iar, pentru Republica Moldova, scopul este nu doar asocierea, alias parafarea &#351;i ratificarea documentelor semnate la summit-ele UE, ct revenirea, propriu-zis&#259;, n familia statelor europene.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;text-indent:27.0pt;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><span style='font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof: yes'>Astfel, vom contesta acea nedreptate istoric&#259;, s&#259;vr&#351;it&#259; la adresa poporului nostru acum dou&#259; secole, cnd Principatul Moldovei a fost sfrtecat n jum&#259;tate. Parcursul european al Moldovei dintre Prut &#351;i Nistru a fost deturnat pentru un secol  prin anexarea ei, n luna mai 1812, la Rusia &#355;arist&#259;, iar apoi cotropirea, n iunie 1940, de c&#259;tre U.R.S.S. &#351;i reocuparea de regimul sovietic n 1944... Basarabia a devenit zon&#259; de <i>contact-conflict</i> ntre dou&#259; lumi antagoniste. Problema basarabean&#259; este demult o problem&#259; european&#259;, doar c&#259; europenii ntrzie s&#259; o solu&#355;ioneze, iar basarabenii nu au puterea decizional&#259; &#351;i nu se simt nc&#259; la egal cu compatrio&#355;ii romni din stnga Prutului, care sunt deja cet&#259;&#355;eni ai Europei (din 2004 Romnia este membr&#259; a NATO, iar din 2007 face parte din Uniunea European&#259;).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;text-indent:27.0pt;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><span style='font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof: yes'>Imperiul Rusiei, care se extindea c&#259;tre nceputul secolului al XIX-lea pe trei continente, n Europa, Asia &#351;i America de Nord, promovnd abil o politic&#259; expansionist&#259; n direc&#355;ia Balcanilor, &#351;i-a realizat, la 1812, doar par&#355;ial planurile<sup>2</sup>. Totu&#351;i, n pofida situa&#355;iei interna&#355;ionale nefavorabile &#351;i pl&#259;tind pre&#355;ul a 150.000 de mor&#355;i ai armatei sale n acel r&#259;zboi (1806-1812), a ob&#355;inut un limes geostrategic foarte important  cucerind, la acea dat&#259;, gurile Dun&#259;rii (bra&#355;ul Chiliei), dezmembrnd str&#259;vechiul teritoriu al Moldovei. mp&#259;ratul Alexandru I, ocupnd n mod for&#355;at &#351;i arbitrar p&#259;mnturile moldave dintre Nistru &#351;i Prut, dup&#259; ce-&#351;i dorise extinderea grani&#355;elor pn&#259; la Siret sau chiar pn&#259; la Carpa&#355;i &#351;i Dun&#259;re, nu avea vreun temei legitim de revendicare a acestora, n afara dreptului for&#355;ei. Teritoriul istoric romnesc dintre Prut &#351;i Nistru era anexat la Rusia &#355;arist&#259; (45.630 kilometri p&#259;tra&#355;i), care nu avea niciun argument sau drept (fie sub aspect etnic, istoric, geografic sau politic) asupra acestui p&#259;mnt, denumit de c&#259;tre administra&#355;ia &#355;arist&#259;  Basarabia, extinzndu-se, astfel, numele istoric, propriu doar p&#259;r&#355;ii geografice din sudul Moldovei (dintre Dun&#259;re &#351;i Nistru).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;text-indent:27.0pt;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><span style='font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof: yes'>Soarta Principatelor Romne n acea perioad&#259; hot&#259;rtoare a fost totalmente l&#259;sat&#259; la discre&#355;ia marilor puteri, care disputau spinoasa <i>Chestiune Oriental&#259;</i>. La 1812, Rusia, scindnd Moldova &#351;i stabilind un hotar arbitrar pe Prut, genereaz&#259; o nou&#259; problem&#259; interna&#355;ional&#259;  <i>Problema Basarabiei</i>. n acest context, men&#355;ion&#259;m c&#259;, net&#259;g&#259;duind imperialismul Fran&#355;ei, Austriei &#351;i Marii Britanii fa&#355;&#259; de Imperiul Otoman &#351;i statele supuse lui, nu putem omite c&#259; rezultatele practice ale expansiunii &#355;ariste n bazinul pontic, n a doua jum&#259;tate a secolului al XVIII-lea  nceputul secolului al XIX-lea, au fost destul de concludente:<i> Crimeea, Caucazul, Moldova r&#259;s&#259;ritean&#259; </i><span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>(<i>pe talvegul Prutului &#351;i cu gurile Dun&#259;rii</i>)<i>.</i></span> Iar n cadrul r&#259;zboiului ruso-turc din 1806-1812, dup&#259; cum s-a men&#355;ionat: <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'> Moldova &#351;i &#354;ara Romneasc&#259; au fost piese de &#351;ah ale unui joc diplomatic de mari propor&#355;ii, n care partener al mp&#259;ratului francez a fost Alexandru I, &#355;arul Rusiei <sup>3</sup>.</i> Din p&#259;cate, la nceputul secolului al XIX-lea am fost, n rezultatul disputelor imperiilor vecine, <i>Pioni</i>, &#351;i nu <i>Piloni </i>ai raporturilor interna&#355;ionale din sud-estul Europei.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;text-indent:27.0pt;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><span style='font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof: yes'>Spoliatorul tratat de pace de la Bucure&#351;ti, semnat la 16 (28) mai 1812, marcheaz&#259; <i>o concesie</i> (ntr-o conjunctur&#259; interna&#355;ional&#259; extrem de fr&#259;mntat&#259;) pe contul Moldovei, cnd, n cadrul crizei <i>Problemei Orientale</i>, are loc geneza unei noi probleme  a celei <i>Basarabene</i>. Consemn&#259;m c&#259; esen&#355;a chestiunii date este de natur&#259; politic&#259; &#351;i rezult&#259; din cucerirea &#351;i anexarea par&#355;ial&#259; a Moldovei, prin fixarea unui hotar arbitrar (scindnd-o pe linia Prutului, practic, n jum&#259;tate) &#351;i stabilirea Rusiei la gurile Dun&#259;rii, semnificnd, astfel, geneza unei noi probleme etnopolitice interna&#355;ionale. Dac&#259; <i>chestiunea romn&#259;</i>, ca problem&#259; interna&#355;ional&#259;, a semnificat, n secolul al XIX-lea, imperativul unit&#259;&#355;ii na&#355;ionale, apoi cea <i>basarabean&#259;</i>  rezid&#259; n scindarea na&#355;ional-teritorial&#259; a moldovenilor la 1812. <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> Astfel ocuparea n toate formele cerute de dreptul interna&#355;ional a teritoriului cuprins ntre Nistru, Prut &#351;i Dun&#259;re are pentru Rusia mai mult dect importan&#355;a unei simple cuceriri: prin aceasta ru&#351;ii c&#351;tig&#259; pozi&#355;iuni, care domineaz&#259; &#355;&#259;rile romne&#351;ti &#351;i Dun&#259;rea, c&#351;tig&#259; Hotinul, de unde domineaz&#259; intr&#259;rile dinspre miaz&#259;noapte ale Carpa&#355;ilor, c&#351;tig&#259; n sfr&#351;it o nrurire mai direct&#259; asupra poporului romn <sup>4</sup>.<o:p></o:p></i></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;text-indent:27.0pt;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><span style='font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof: yes'>A&#351;a cum au scris istoricii contemporani, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'> dup&#259; tratatul de curnd ncheiat (1812) ntre Poarta Otoman&#259; &#351;i Rusia, toat&#259; Basarabia cu cinci jude&#355;e ale sale, adic&#259; Soroca, Orheiul &#351;i L&#259;pu&#351;na, Hot&#259;rnice(n)ii, Codru, Grec(en)ii, &#351;i o parte din jude&#355;ul Ia&#351;i, mpreun&#259; cu cet&#259;&#355;ile Hotin &#351;i Bender, au trecut n st&#259;pnirea Imperiului Rusiei. De aceea Moldova a ajuns foarte mic&#259;, cuprinznd numai 16 jude&#355;e &#351;i desp&#259;r&#355;indu-se dinspre r&#259;s&#259;rit de Basarabia prin rul Prut <sup>5</sup></i>. Iar acel nivel de dezvoltare socio-economic&#259;, pe care &#354;ara Moldovei l-a nregistrat pn&#259; la declan&#351;area r&#259;zboiului ruso-turc, n noiembrie 1806, a putut fi atins din nou, din cauza amput&#259;rii teritoriale (pierderii Moldovei dintre Prut &#351;i Nistru, adic&#259; a 48% din teritoriu) &#351;i drept consecin&#355;&#259; a ocupa&#355;iei militare ruse&#351;ti din anii 1806-1812, abia n anii  30 ai secolului al XIX-lea.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;text-indent:27.0pt;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><span style='font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof: yes'>Tratatul de pace (inclusiv dou&#259; articole secrete) a fost ratificat de c&#259;tre Alexandru I la 11 (23) iunie 1812 (mar&#355;i), n ora&#351;ul Wilno (din 1795 pn&#259; n 1915 ora&#351;ul Vilnius a fost inclus n componen&#355;a Imperiului Rus).  &#1058;&#1086;&#1075;&#1086; &#1088;&#1072;&#1076;&#1080; &#1085;&#1072;&#1096;&#1077; &#1080;&#1084;&#1087;&#1077;&#1088;&#1072;&#1090;&#1086;&#1088;&#1089;&#1082;&#1086;&#1077; &#1074;&#1077;&#1083;&#1080;&#1095;&#1077;&#1089;&#1090;&#1074;&#1086;, &#1087;&#1086; &#1076;&#1086;&#1074;&#1086;&#1083;&#1100;&#1085;&#1086;&#1084; &#1088;&#1072;&#1089;&#1089;&#1084;&#1086;&#1090;&#1088;&#1077;&#1085;&#1080;&#1080; &#1074;&#1099;&#1096;&#1077;&#1087;&#1088;&#1086;&#1087;&#1080;&#1089;&#1072;&#1085;&#1085;&#1086;&#1075;&#1086; &#1076;&#1086;&#1075;&#1086;&#1074;&#1086;&#1088;&#1072; &#1074;&#1077;&#1095;&#1085;&#1086;&#1075;&#1086; &#1084;&#1080;&#1088;&#1072;, &#1087;&#1086;&#1076;&#1090;&#1074;&#1077;&#1088;&#1076;&#1080;&#1083;&#1080; &#1080; &#1088;&#1072;&#1090;&#1080;&#1092;&#1080;&#1082;&#1086;&#1074;&#1072;&#1083;&#1080; &#1086;&#1085;&#1099;&#1081;, &#1103;&#1082;&#1086; &#1078;&#1077; &#1089;&#1080;&#1084; &#1079;&#1072; &#1073;&#1083;&#1072;&#1075;&#1086; &#1087;&#1088;&#1080;&#1077;&#1084;&#1083;&#1077;&#1084;, &#1087;&#1086;&#1076;&#1090;&#1074;&#1077;&#1088;&#1078;&#1076;&#1072;&#1077;&#1084; &#1080; &#1088;&#1072;&#1090;&#1080;&#1092;&#1080;&#1082;&#1091;&#1077;&#1084;, &#1074;&#1086; &#1074;&#1089;&#1077;&#1084; &#1077;&#1075;&#1086; &#1089;&#1086;&#1076;&#1077;&#1088;&#1078;&#1072;&#1085;&#1080;&#1080;, &#1086;&#1073;&#1077;&#1097;&#1072;&#1103; &#1080;&#1084;&#1087;&#1077;&#1088;&#1072;&#1090;&#1086;&#1088;&#1089;&#1082;&#1080;&#1084; &#1085;&#1072;&#1096;&#1080;&#1084; &#1089;&#1083;&#1086;&#1074;&#1086;&#1084;, &#1079;&#1072; &#1085;&#1072;&#1089; &#1080; &#1085;&#1072;&#1089;&#1083;&#1077;&#1076;&#1085;&#1080;&#1082;&#1086;&#1074; &#1085;&#1072;&#1096;&#1080;&#1093;, &#1095;&#1090;&#1086; &#1074;&#1089;&#1077;, &#1074; &#1086;&#1085;&#1086;&#1084; &#1090;&#1088;&#1072;&#1082;&#1090;&#1072;&#1090;&#1077; &#1087;&#1086;&#1089;&#1090;&#1072;&#1085;&#1086;&#1074;&#1083;&#1077;&#1085;&#1085;&#1086;&#1077;, &#1085;&#1072;&#1073;&#1083;&#1102;&#1076;&#1072;&#1077;&#1084;&#1086; &#1080; &#1080;&#1089;&#1087;&#1086;&#1083;&#1085;&#1103;&#1077;&#1084;&#1086; &#1085;&#1072;&#1084;&#1080; &#1073;&#1091;&#1076;&#1077;&#1090; &#1085;&#1077;&#1085;&#1072;&#1088;&#1091;&#1096;&#1080;&#1084;&#1086;. &#1042;&#1086; &#1091;&#1074;&#1077;&#1088;&#1077;&#1085;&#1080;&#1077; &#1095;&#1077;&#1075;&#1086; &#1084;&#1099; &#1089;&#1080;&#1102; &#1088;&#1072;&#1090;&#1080;&#1092;&#1080;&#1082;&#1072;&#1094;&#1080;&#1102;, &#1087;&#1086;&#1076;&#1087;&#1080;&#1089;&#1072;&#1074; &#1089;&#1074;&#1086;&#1077;&#1088;&#1091;&#1095;&#1085;&#1086;, &#1087;&#1086;&#1074;&#1077;&#1083;&#1077;&#1083;&#1080; &#1091;&#1090;&#1074;&#1077;&#1088;&#1076;&#1080;&#1090;&#1100; &#1075;&#1086;&#1089;&#1091;&#1076;&#1072;&#1088;&#1089;&#1090;&#1074;&#1077;&#1085;&#1085;&#1086;&#1102; &#1085;&#1072;&#1096;&#1077;&#1102; &#1087;&#1077;&#1095;&#1072;&#1090;&#1100;&#1102;. &#1044;&#1072;&#1085;&#1072; &#1074; &#1042;&#1080;&#1083;&#1100;&#1085;&#1077; &#1080;&#1102;&#1085;&#1103; 11 &#1076;&#1085;&#1103; 1812 &#1075;&#1086;&#1076;&#1072; &#1075;&#1086;&#1089;&#1091;&#1076;&#1072;&#1088;&#1089;&#1090;&#1074;&#1086;&#1074;&#1072;&#1085;&#1080;&#1103; &#1085;&#1072;&#1096;&#1077;&#1075;&#1086; &#1074;&#1086; &#1074;&#1090;&#1086;&#1088;&#1086;&#1077; &#1085;&#1072; &#1076;&#1077;&#1089;&#1103;&#1090;&#1100; &#1083;&#1077;&#1090;&#1086;. <sup>6</sup>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;text-indent:27.0pt;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><span style='font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof: yes'>Iar schimbul actelor de ratificare s-a produs la Bucure&#351;ti, la 2 (14) iulie (sultanul Mahmud II refuznd s&#259; ratifice cele dou&#259; articole din partea secret&#259; a tratatului). Din ziua cnd tratatul a fost ratificat  a demarat <i>de jure </i> procesul instaur&#259;rii domina&#355;iei &#355;ariste &#351;i a stabilirii noului hotar  pe rul Prut, ce a sf&#351;iat Moldova timp de mai bine de un secol.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;text-indent:27.0pt;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><span style='font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof: yes'>ntr-un sfr&#351;it, Imperiul Otoman, ajungnd n starea  omului bolnav al Europei , a disp&#259;rut de pe harta lumii la 1922 (s-ar fi dezintegrat cu mult timp naintea acestui moment tardiv, dac&#259; puterile occidentale nu l-ar fi men&#539;inut n via&#539;&#259; n mod artificial, cu scopul de a avea o for&#539;&#259; de contrapondere contra Rusiei), iar Imperiul Rusiei &#351;i-a sfr&#351;it existen&#539;a n februarie 1917.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;text-indent:27.0pt;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><span style='font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof: yes'>Reamintim c&#259;, imediat dup&#259; lovitura de stat din octombrie 1917 (revolu&#355;ia bol&#351;evic&#259;), guvernul sovietic a renun&#355;at la toate tratatele inegale, ncheiate de Rusia &#355;arist&#259;, &#351;i a respins acordurile secrete anexioniste cu participarea sa, dndu-le publicit&#259;&#355;ii. Adoptnd  <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'>Decretul despre Pace</b> , la cel de-al II-lea Congres al Sovietelor din Rusia din 26 octombrie 1917, guvernul sovietic a proclamat denun&#355;area necondi&#355;ionat&#259; &#351;i imediat&#259; a tuturor tratatelor secrete<sup>7</sup>. n apelul c&#259;tre muncitorii musulmani din Rusia &#351;i Orient, din 20 noiembrie 1917, Rusia Sovietic&#259;, declarnd deschis dorin&#355;a <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> s&#259; ajute popoarele oprimate</i> <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>din ntreaga lume s&#259;-&#351;i dobndeasc&#259; libertatea ,</i> a men&#355;ionat c&#259; anuleaz&#259; tratatele vechi, n special Tratatul privind cucerirea Constantinopolului, mp&#259;r&#355;irea Persiei (Iranului) &#351;i Turciei<sup>8</sup>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;text-indent:27.0pt;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><span style='font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof: yes'>Era de a&#351;teptat ca aceste dou&#259; documente istorice s&#259; stabileasc&#259; principiile unei politici externe <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'> democratice </i> a guvernului sovietic (fiind respinse necondi&#355;ionat toate tratatele inegale, ncheiate de c&#259;tre Rusia &#355;arist&#259;).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;text-indent:27.0pt;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><span style='font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof: yes'>Pozi&#355;ia statului sovietic din acea perioad&#259;, n problema tratatelor &#355;ariste, &#351;i-a g&#259;sit reflectarea n ncheierea unor noi tratate cu &#355;&#259;rile din Orient. Succesorii imperiilor &#354;arist &#351;i Otoman  R.S.F.S. Rus&#259; &#537;i Marea Adunare Na&#539;ional&#259; a Turciei  au semnat la Moscova, la 16 martie 1921, <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'>Tratatul ruso-turc</b> de <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> prietenie &#537;i fr&#259;&#539;ie .</i> Tratatul includea 16 articole &#537;i 4 anexe, fiind semnat din partea R.S.F.S.R. de c&#259;tre Gh. V. Cicerin, Comisarul poporului pentru afaceri externe, &#537;i Jalal ad-Din Korkmasov, iar din partea Turciei de c&#259;tre Yusuf Kemal-bey, Riza Nur &#537;i Ali Fuad-pa&#537;a. Tratatul a fost ratificat de V&#538;IK (&#1042;&#1062;&#1048;&#1050;) pe 20 iulie 1921 &#537;i de Marea Adunare Na&#539;ional&#259; a Turciei (MANT) la 31 iulie 1921. Schimbul instrumentelor de ratificare s-a f&#259;cut pe 22 septembrie 1921 la Kars<sup>9</sup>. Este important, din punct de vedere al dreptului interna&#355;ional, c&#259; Tratatul de la Moscova consemnase, n articolul VI, c&#259; p&#259;r&#355;ile contractante consider&#259; <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'>toate tratatele precedente</b>, semnate de Imperiile Otoman &#351;i cel &#354;arist, ca fiind <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'>anulate</b>, acestea <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'>pierzndu-&#351;i puterea juridic&#259;</b> ( &#1054;&#1073;&#1077; &#1076;&#1086;&#1075;&#1086;&#1074;&#1072;&#1088;&#1080;&#1074;&#1072;&#1102;&#1097;&#1080;&#1077;&#1089;&#1103; &#1089;&#1090;&#1086;&#1088;&#1086;&#1085;&#1099; &#1087;&#1088;&#1080;&#1079;&#1085;&#1072;&#1102;&#1090;, &#1095;&#1090;&#1086; &#1074;&#1089;&#1077; &#1076;&#1086;&#1075;&#1086;&#1074;&#1086;&#1088;&#1099;, &#1076;&#1086; &#1089;&#1077;&#1075;&#1086; &#1074;&#1088;&#1077;&#1084;&#1077;&#1085;&#1080; &#1079;&#1072;&#1082;&#1083;&#1102;&#1095;&#1077;&#1085;&#1085;&#1099;&#1077; &#1084;&#1077;&#1078;&#1076;&#1091; &#1086;&#1073;&#1077;&#1080;&#1084;&#1080; &#1089;&#1090;&#1088;&#1072;&#1085;&#1072;&#1084;&#1080;, &#1085;&#1077; &#1089;&#1086;&#1086;&#1090;&#1074;&#1077;&#1090;&#1089;&#1090;&#1074;&#1091;&#1102;&#1090; &#1086;&#1073;&#1086;&#1102;&#1076;&#1085;&#1099;&#1084; &#1080;&#1085;&#1090;&#1077;&#1088;&#1077;&#1089;&#1072;&#1084;. &#1054;&#1085;&#1080; &#1089;&#1086;&#1075;&#1083;&#1072;&#1096;&#1072;&#1102;&#1090;&#1089;&#1103; &#1087;&#1086;&#1101;&#1090;&#1086;&#1084;&#1091; &#1087;&#1088;&#1080;&#1079;&#1085;&#1072;&#1090;&#1100; &#1101;&#1090;&#1080; &#1076;&#1086;&#1075;&#1086;&#1074;&#1086;&#1088;&#1099; &#1086;&#1090;&#1084;&#1077;&#1085;&#1077;&#1085;&#1085;&#1099;&#1084;&#1080; &#1080; &#1085;&#1077; &#1080;&#1084;&#1077;&#1102;&#1097;&#1080;&#1084;&#1080; &#1089;&#1080;&#1083;&#1099;. &#1055;&#1088;&#1072;&#1074;&#1080;&#1090;&#1077;&#1083;&#1100;&#1089;&#1090;&#1074;&#1086; &#1056;&#1086;&#1089;&#1089;&#1080;&#1081;&#1089;&#1082;&#1086;&#1081; &#1057;&#1086;&#1094;&#1080;&#1072;&#1083;&#1080;&#1089;&#1090;&#1080;&#1095;&#1077;&#1089;&#1082;&#1086;&#1081; &#1060;&#1077;&#1076;&#1077;&#1088;&#1072;&#1090;&#1080;&#1074;&#1085;&#1086;&#1081; &#1057;&#1086;&#1074;&#1077;&#1090;&#1089;&#1082;&#1086;&#1081; &#1056;&#1077;&#1089;&#1087;&#1091;&#1073;&#1083;&#1080;&#1082;&#1080; &#1079;&#1072;&#1103;&#1074;&#1083;&#1103;&#1077;&#1090;, &#1074; &#1095;&#1072;&#1089;&#1090;&#1085;&#1086;&#1089;&#1090;&#1080;, &#1095;&#1090;&#1086; &#1086;&#1085;&#1086; &#1089;&#1095;&#1080;&#1090;&#1072;&#1077;&#1090; &#1058;&#1091;&#1088;&#1094;&#1080;&#1102; &#1089;&#1074;&#1086;&#1073;&#1086;&#1076;&#1085;&#1086;&#1081; &#1086;&#1090; &#1074;&#1089;&#1103;&#1082;&#1080;&#1093; &#1082; &#1085;&#1077;&#1084;&#1091; &#1076;&#1077;&#1085;&#1077;&#1078;&#1085;&#1099;&#1093; &#1080;&#1083;&#1080; &#1080;&#1085;&#1099;&#1093; &#1086;&#1073;&#1103;&#1079;&#1072;&#1090;&#1077;&#1083;&#1100;&#1089;&#1090;&#1074;, &#1086;&#1089;&#1085;&#1086;&#1074;&#1072;&#1085;&#1085;&#1099;&#1093; &#1085;&#1072; &#1084;&#1077;&#1078;&#1076;&#1091;&#1085;&#1072;&#1088;&#1086;&#1076;&#1085;&#1099;&#1093; &#1072;&#1082;&#1090;&#1072;&#1093;, &#1088;&#1072;&#1085;&#1077;&#1077; &#1079;&#1072;&#1082;&#1083;&#1102;&#1095;&#1077;&#1085;&#1085;&#1099;&#1093; &#1084;&#1077;&#1078;&#1076;&#1091; &#1058;&#1091;&#1088;&#1094;&#1080;&#1077;&#1081; &#1080; &#1094;&#1072;&#1088;&#1089;&#1082;&#1080;&#1084; &#1087;&#1088;&#1072;&#1074;&#1080;&#1090;&#1077;&#1083;&#1100;&#1089;&#1090;&#1074;&#1086;&#1084; )<sup>10</sup>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;text-indent:27.0pt;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><span style='font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof: yes'>Astfel, tratatul sovieto-turc din 16 martie 1921 a stipulat p&#259;r&#355;ilor semnatare s&#259; nu recunoasc&#259; niciun tratat de pace sau alte acte interna&#355;ionale, n cazul n care ar fi impuse cu for&#355;a s&#259; adere una dintre p&#259;r&#355;i (articolul 1), anulndu-se tratatele inegale ale guvernului &#355;arist cu Turcia (articolul 6), fiind declarate nule orice fel de ac&#355;iuni &#351;i drepturi referitoare la regimul stabilit de aceste tratate (articolul 7)<sup>11</sup>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;text-indent:27.0pt;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><span style='font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof: yes'>A trebuit s&#259; treac&#259; mai bine de un secol, pentru ca Rusia (deja cea sovietic&#259;) s&#259; recunoasc&#259; oficial nulitatea consecin&#355;elor P&#259;cii de la Bucure&#351;ti din 1812, iar poporul romn al Basarabiei s&#259;-&#351;i decid&#259; de sine st&#259;t&#259;tor destinul prin Actul Unirii din 27 martie 1918, rezolvnd echitabil <i>Problema basarabean&#259;.</i> Pentru diploma&#355;ia noastr&#259; r&#259;mne remarcabil <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> R&#259;spunsul guvernului romn la nota guvernului ucrainean din 5 mai, trimis din Ia&#351;i, la 19 iunie 1919 ,</i> care preciza c&#259;: <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> Din punct de vedere geografic, etnografic, istoric, a&#351;a-zisa provincie a Basarabiei a fost deci din toate vremurile un p&#259;mnt romnesc &#351;i a constituit o parte integrant&#259; &#351;i indivizibil&#259; a Principatului Moldovei <sup>12</sup>.<o:p></o:p></i></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof:yes'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:center;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><span style='font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof:yes'>* * *<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;text-indent:35.4pt;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><span style='font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof: yes'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;text-indent:35.4pt;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><span style='font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof: yes'>n prezent, este foarte simbolic s&#259; revenim <i>ad initio</i> acolo, de unde am pornit: la Wilno, Vilnius<sup>13</sup>. C&#259;ci pasul nostru decisiv spre apropierea-aderarea la UE este, n fond, revenirea ntrziat&#259; n snul civiliza&#355;iei tradi&#355;ionale  europene, ce nu poate fi calificat&#259; doar ca un <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> premiu real </i> sau ipotetic, ci ca o legitim&#259; restabilire a unei situa&#355;ii geopolitice, de&#351;i par&#355;iale, rectificndu-se urm&#259;rile nefastului <i>Act din 1812</i>, ce a fost ratificat la Wilno (Vilnius) cu 202 ani n urm&#259;...<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof:yes'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><b><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof:yes'>Note</span></b><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof: yes'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof:yes'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><sup><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof:yes'>1</span></sup><span style='font-family: "Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof:yes'> http://www.economist.com/blogs/easternapproaches/2013/11/moldova (accesat la 28.05.2014)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><sup><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof:yes'>2</span></sup><span style='font-family: "Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof:yes'> Vlad Mischevca, <i>Anul 1812: Dou&#259; secole de la anexarea Basarabiei de c&#259;tre Imperiul Rusiei</i>, Chi&#351;in&#259;u, 2012, 142 p.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><sup><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof:yes'>3</span></sup><span style='font-family: "Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof:yes'> Sergiu Columbeanu, <i>Contribu&#355;ii privind situa&#355;ia interna&#355;ional&#259; a &#354;&#259;rilor Romne ntre anii 1806-1812</i>, n  Revista de istorie , Tom. 29, 1976, nr. 5, p. 657.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><sup><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof:yes'>4</span></sup><span style='font-family: "Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof:yes'> Mihai Eminescu, <i>ntre Scylla &#351;i Charybda. Opera politic&#259;</i>, ed. a 2-a, Editura Litera Interna&#355;ional, Chi&#351;in&#259;u, 2008, p. 215.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><sup><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof:yes'>5</span></sup><span style='font-family: "Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof:yes'> Dionisie Fotino, <i>Istoria general&#259; a Daciei sau a Transilvaniei, &#354;&#259;rii Muntene&#351;ti &#351;i a Moldovei</i>, trad. din grece&#351;te de George Sion, Editura Valahia, Bucure&#351;ti, 2008, p. 729.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><sup><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof:yes'>6</span></sup><span style='font-family: "Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof:yes'> <i>&#1055;&#1086;&#1083;&#1085;&#1086;&#1077; &#1089;&#1086;&#1073;&#1088;&#1072;&#1085;&#1080;&#1077; &#1079;&#1072;&#1082;&#1086;&#1085;&#1086;&#1074; &#1056;&#1086;&#1089;&#1089;&#1080;&#1081;&#1089;&#1082;&#1086;&#1081; &#1080;&#1084;&#1087;&#1077;&#1088;&#1080;&#1080;</i>, &#1090;.&nbsp;XXXII, &#1089;&#1090;&#1088;. 316-322, &#8470; 25110.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><sup><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof:yes'>7</span></sup><span style='font-family: "Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof:yes'> Cf.: &#1053;. &#1042;. &#1047;&#1072;&#1093;&#1072;&#1088;&#1086;&#1074;&#1072;, <i>&#1054;&#1090;&#1082;&#1072;&#1079; &#1057;&#1086;&#1074;&#1077;&#1090;&#1089;&#1082;&#1086;&#1075;&#1086; &#1087;&#1088;&#1072;&#1074;&#1080;&#1090;&#1077;&#1083;&#1100;&#1089;&#1090;&#1074;&#1072; &#1086;&#1090; &#1076;&#1086;&#1075;&#1086;&#1074;&#1086;&#1088;&#1086;&#1074; &#1094;&#1072;&#1088;&#1089;&#1082;&#1086;&#1081; &#1056;&#1086;&#1089;&#1089;&#1080;&#1080;, &#1085;&#1072;&#1088;&#1091;&#1096;&#1072;&#1074;&#1096;&#1080;&#1093; &#1087;&#1088;&#1072;&#1074;&#1072; &#1085;&#1072;&#1088;&#1086;&#1076;&#1086;&#1074; &#1074;&#1086;&#1089;&#1090;&#1086;&#1095;&#1085;&#1099;&#1093; &#1089;&#1090;&#1088;&#1072;&#1085;</i> // <i>&#1057;&#1086;&#1074;&#1077;&#1090;&#1089;&#1082;&#1080;&#1081; &#1077;&#1078;&#1077;&#1075;&#1086;&#1076;&#1085;&#1080;&#1082; &#1084;&#1077;&#1078;&#1076;&#1091;&#1085;&#1072;&#1088;&#1086;&#1076;&#1085;&#1086;&#1075;&#1086; &#1087;&#1088;&#1072;&#1074;&#1072;</i>, 1962, &#1048;&#1079;&#1076;. &#1040;&#1053; &#1057;&#1057;&#1057;&#1056;, &#1052;&#1086;&#1089;&#1082;&#1074;&#1072;, 1963, &#1089;. 134; &#1056;. &#1040;. &#1058;&#1091;&#1079;&#1084;&#1091;&#1093;&#1072;&#1084;&#1077;&#1076;&#1086;&#1074;,<i> &#1052;&#1077;&#1078;&#1076;&#1091;&#1085;&#1072;&#1088;&#1086;&#1076;&#1085;&#1086;&#1077; &#1079;&#1085;&#1072;&#1095;&#1077;&#1085;&#1080;&#1077; &#1086;&#1087;&#1091;&#1073;&#1083;&#1080;&#1082;&#1086;&#1074;&#1072;&#1085;&#1080;&#1103; &#1057;&#1086;&#1074;&#1077;&#1090;&#1089;&#1082;&#1080;&#1084; &#1087;&#1088;&#1072;&#1074;&#1080;&#1090;&#1077;&#1083;&#1100;&#1089;&#1090;&#1074;&#1086;&#1084; &#1090;&#1072;&#1081;&#1085;&#1099;&#1093; &#1076;&#1086;&#1075;&#1086;&#1074;&#1086;&#1088;&#1086;&#1074; &#1094;&#1072;&#1088;&#1089;&#1082;&#1086;&#1081; &#1056;&#1086;&#1089;&#1089;&#1080;&#1080;. &#1042;&#1086;&#1087;&#1088;&#1086;&#1089;&#1099; &#1090;&#1077;&#1086;&#1088;&#1080;&#1080; &#1080; &#1087;&#1088;&#1072;&#1082;&#1090;&#1080;&#1082;&#1080; &#1084;&#1077;&#1078;&#1076;&#1091;&#1085;&#1072;&#1088;&#1086;&#1076;&#1085;&#1086;&#1075;&#1086; &#1087;&#1088;&#1072;&#1074;&#1072;</i>, &#1048;&#1079;&#1076;. &#1048;&#1052;&#1054;, &#1052;&#1086;&#1089;&#1082;&#1074;&#1072;, 1959.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><sup><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof:yes'>8</span></sup><span style='font-family: "Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof:yes'> <i>&#1044;&#1086;&#1082;&#1091;&#1084;&#1077;&#1085;&#1090;&#1099; &#1074;&#1085;&#1077;&#1096;&#1085;&#1077;&#1081; &#1087;&#1086;&#1083;&#1080;&#1090;&#1080;&#1082;&#1080; &#1057;&#1057;&#1057;&#1056;</i>, &#1090;. I, &#1043;&#1086;&#1089;&#1087;&#1086;&#1083;&#1080;&#1090;&#1080;&#1079;&#1076;&#1072;&#1090;, &#1052;&#1086;&#1089;&#1082;&#1074;&#1072;, 1957, &#1089;. 34-35.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><sup><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof:yes'>9</span></sup><span style='font-family: "Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof:yes'> <i>&#1044;&#1080;&#1087;&#1083;&#1086;&#1084;&#1072;&#1090;&#1080;&#1095;&#1077;&#1089;&#1082;&#1080;&#1081; &#1089;&#1083;&#1086;&#1074;&#1072;&#1088;&#1100;</i>,&#1090;. III. &#1057;-&#1071;, &#1053;&#1072;&#1091;&#1082;&#1072;, &#1052;&#1086;&#1089;&#1082;&#1074;&#1072;, 1986, &#1089;. 312-313; <i>&#1044;&#1086;&#1082;&#1091;&#1084;&#1077;&#1085;&#1090;&#1099; &#1074;&#1085;&#1077;&#1096;&#1085;&#1077;&#1081; &#1087;&#1086;&#1083;&#1080;&#1090;&#1080;&#1082;&#1080; &#1057;&#1057;&#1057;&#1056;</i>, &#1090;. III, &#1052;&#1086;&#1089;&#1082;&#1074;&#1072;, 1959, c. 597-604.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><sup><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof:yes'>10</span></sup><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof: yes'> http://www.genocide.ru/lib/treaties/19.htm (ultima accesare 28.05.2014)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><sup><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof:yes'>11</span></sup><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof: yes'> <i>&#1044;&#1086;&#1082;&#1091;&#1084;&#1077;&#1085;&#1090;&#1099; &#1074;&#1085;&#1077;&#1096;&#1085;&#1077;&#1081; &#1087;&#1086;&#1083;&#1080;&#1090;&#1080;&#1082;&#1080; &#1057;&#1057;&#1057;&#1056;</i>, &#1090;. III, &#1043;&#1086;&#1089;&#1087;&#1086;&#1083;&#1080;&#1090;&#1080;&#1079;&#1076;&#1072;&#1090;, M&#1086;&#1089;&#1082;&#1074;&#1072;, 1959, &#1089;. 597-604.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><sup><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof:yes'>12</span></sup><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof: yes'> Ion Agrigoroaiei, <i>Basarabia n acte diplomatice: 1711-1947</i>, Ia&#351;i, 2012, p. 9.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><sup><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof:yes'>13</span></sup><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof: yes'> De consemnat c&#259;, la 16 decembrie 1554, tot la Wilno (pe atunci Polonia), actualul Vilnius (capitala Lituaniei), a fost parafat  Tratatul de alian&#539;&#259; &#537;i de pace etern&#259; ntre Alexandru L&#259;pu&#537;neanu, domnul Moldovei, &#537;i Sigismund al II-lea August, regele Poloniei.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <h1 style='margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:justify;mso-line-height-alt: 10.0pt'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof:yes'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></h1> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:center;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof: yes'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:center;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof: yes'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:center;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-CA;mso-no-proof: yes'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:center;mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:16.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <h2 align=center style='margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:center; mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt'><span lang=RO><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></h2> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-line-height-alt: 10.0pt'><span lang=EN-US><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <center> <FORM ACTION="../cgi-bin/mycgi.pl" NAME="myform"> <BUTTON NAME="go" TYPE="input" onclick="origina()" ><STRONG>Home</STRONG></BUTTON> </FORM> <script language=javascript> function origina() { parent.location.href="index.html" } </script> <SCRIPT TYPE="text/javascript"> function blinker() { if (document.forms.myform.go.style.color == 'blue') document.forms.myform.go.style.color='red'; else document.forms.myform.go.style.color='blue'; setTimeout('blinker()',500); } blinker() </SCRIPT> <tr><td align= "center">ALTERNATIVA / THE ALTERNATIVE / L'ALTERNATIVE - Politica, cultura, stiri, publicitate </center> </td></tr></table> </body> </html>