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Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} </style> <![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapedefaults v:ext="edit" spidmax="2050"/> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapelayout v:ext="edit"> <o:idmap v:ext="edit" data="1"/> </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--> </head> <body bgcolor="white" link="#660000" vlink="#330066"> <center> <table width="630" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" style="border: 0 solid black;"><tr><td bgcolor="#fffffc"><div align="justify"> &nbsp;<br>&nbsp;<br> <div class=WordSection1> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span lang=RO style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>Victor Ravini<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span lang=RO style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span lang=RO style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span lang=RO style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Ce facem cu Miori&#539;a &#537;i cui o l&#259;s&#259;m? <o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span lang=RO style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>- partea I-a -<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span lang=RO style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify'><a name="_GoBack"></a><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=RO style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <img style="max-width:95%;border:3px solid white;" src="images/VictorRavini1808.jpg", width=240, height=269 border="0" align="left" alt="Victor Ravini"> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-indent:14.2pt;mso-pagination: widow-orphan'><span lang=RO style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Cum de este posibil ca tocmai una dintre marile crea&#539;ii clasice ale literaturii universale s&#259; devin&#259; inacceptabil&#259; n propria sa &#539;ar&#259;? Unde s-a mai pomenit a&#537;a ceva, cu o poezie? De unde atta ur&#259; mpotriva ei? Un poem na&#539;ional une&#537;te poporul. Cum se face c&#259; acest poem dezbin&#259;? Miori&#355;a dezbin&#259; pentru c&#259; a fost r&#259;st&#259;lm&#259;cit&#259; &#537;i folosit&#259; ca arm&#259; n tot felul de tertipuri politice, n rivalit&#259;&#539;i dintre savan&#539;i &#537;i mai cu seam&#259; n scopul denigr&#259;rii poporului romn, care a creat-o &#537;i p&#259;strat-o. Cea mai nociv&#259; teorie este aceea c&#259; ciobanul se las&#259; omort, c&#259; ar fi la&#537;, iar asta ar fi ceva tipic pentru to&#539;i romnii, care iubesc moartea mai mult dect via&#539;a. Ca la noi, la nimeni. Cine are interes s&#259; ne ndoctrineze cu a&#537;a abera&#539;ie &#537;i n ce scop? Pe cine deranjeaz&#259; ciobanul din Miori&#539;a? Nu Miori&#539;a s&#259; fie scoas&#259; din &#537;coli, ci n&#259;lucirile v&#259;t&#259;m&#259;toare ale ctorva somit&#259;&#539;i orbite de propria lor str&#259;lucire, care &#537;i-au pus frustr&#259;rile personale &#537;i propriile lor deficien&#539;ele suflete&#537;ti sau de caracter pe seama ciobanului &#537;i a ntregii &#539;&#259;ri. N-au vrut s&#259; vad&#259; sensul figurat &#537;i luminos al cuvintelor din Miori&#539;a &#537;i ne-au b&#259;gat pe gt propriul lor pesimism &#537;i fatalism. Orice om normal &#537;i de bun&#259; credin&#539;&#259; vede Miori&#539;a ca pe un imn nchinat omului &#537;i naturii, ce arat&#259; nalta m&#259;sur&#259; a capacit&#259;&#539;ii omului de a se putea minuna de frumuse&#539;ea &#537;i m&#259;re&#539;ia naturii. Oricare dintre noi ne putem minuna de m&#259;re&#539;ia naturii &#537;i a Miori&#539;ei dup&#259; m&#259;sura capacit&#259;&#539;ii fiec&#259;ruia. Totul n Miori&#539;a este altfel dect pare unor ochi neaten&#539;i. Totul este simbol. Toate cte par s&#259; fie concrete sunt abstrac&#539;iuni. Str&#259;bunii ne-au vorbit cntnd &#537;i formulnd imagini poetice pline de filozofie practic&#259; a vie&#539;ii, a&#537;a c&#259; nu putem veni noi acum s&#259; citim asemenea poezie ca pe un fapt divers din ziar, cum ne nva&#539;&#259; unii savan&#539;i, orict i-am respecta. Fiecare vers are un bogat n&#539;eles metaforic, tainic. La o citire atent&#259;, textul cuprinde mai multe idei dect cuvinte. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <img style="max-width:95%;border:3px solid white;" src="images/Mioritacoperta1808.jpg", width=228, height=320 border="0" align="right" alt="Victor Ravini - Miorita"> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-indent:14.2pt'><span lang=RO style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Inten&#539;ia mea este de a repune Miori&#539;a n discu&#539;ie pe baze teoretice &#537;i metodologice noi. Este firesc c&#259; &#537;tiin&#539;a evolueaz&#259; de la o genera&#539;ie la alta &#537;i c&#259; noi avem azi premise mai bune pentru a n&#539;elege ceea ce nu au n&#539;eles nainta&#537;ii no&#537;tri. Noi putem s&#259; rea&#537;ez&#259;m Miori&#539;a pe piedestalul de pe care au dobort-o unii din cercet&#259;torii anteriori, poate f&#259;r&#259; s&#259; &#537;i dea seama ce f&#259;ceau. Unii dintr-ai no&#537;tri, dintre cei mai respectabili, n-au acceptat s&#259; o lase acolo unde o puseser&#259; marile puteri europene nc&#259; de la nceput, cnd au hot&#259;rt c&#259; un popor, care a creat o asemenea capodoper&#259; de valoare universal&#259;, are dreptul s&#259; aib&#259; un stat na&#539;ional. Desigur c&#259; formarea statului na&#539;ional Romnia i-a deranjat pe unii sau pe al&#539;ii, care nu &#537;tim n ce m&#259;sur&#259; se mai turbur&#259; &#537;i acum de nostalgia trecutului lor imperialist, iar Eminescu &#537;i Miori&#539;a le stau ca ghimpi n ochi. N-au dect s&#259; le stea, steaua lor. Ei pot s&#259; ne fure p&#259;durile, pot s&#259; ne fure Carpa&#539;ii cu totul, dar nu vor putea s&#259; ne fure Miori&#539;a. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-indent:14.2pt'><span lang=RO style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Miori&#539;a este tot ce am luat eu cu mine, pribeag din &#539;ar&#259;. Am datoria s&#259; o restitui. Am vrut s&#259; aflu de ce Miori&#355;a este considerat&#259; de c&#259;tre unii dintre noi ca fiind d&#259;un&#259;toare. Analiza mea arat&#259; c&#259; nu Miori&#539;a e d&#259;un&#259;toare, ci interpret&#259;rile ei gre&#537;ite de pn&#259; acum. Nu Miori&#539;a este &#537;coala triste&#539;ii noastre na&#539;ionale, cum credea unul din cei mai mari poe&#539;i contemporani, ndurerat de ceea ce spunea, ci procedura adesea defectuoas&#259; cu care a fost cercetat&#259; de c&#259;tre unii c&#259;rturari, &#537;i care a dus la concluzii gre&#537;ite, d&#259;un&#259;toare nou&#259; ca indivizi &#537;i ca na&#539;iune. Cum bine ziceau bunicii no&#537;tri: Unde este carte mult&#259;, e &#537;i prostie mult&#259;.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify'><span lang=RO style='font-family: "Arial","sans-serif";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Eu nu m&#259; consider c&#259;rturar, ci simplu &#539;&#259;ran get-bi-get, adic&#259; get &#537;i dup&#259; mam&#259; &#537;i dup&#259; tat&#259;, a&#537;a c&#259; scopul analizei mele este lipsit de orice preten&#539;ie &#537;i se limiteaz&#259; la cercetarea unui num&#259;r restrns de elemente n variantele Miori&#355;ei. M-am limitat la rituri &#537;i credin&#539;e n leg&#259;tur&#259; cu moartea ciobanului &#537;i nunta lui cosmic&#259;, n 973 de variante, attea cte am g&#259;sit, nici m&#259;car jum&#259;tate din cele existente. n cadrul analizei, am citat &#537;i am tradus n limba suedez&#259; circa 1500 de versuri din variante. Nu vin cu vreo exegez&#259; hermeneutic&#259;, ca a somit&#259;&#539;ilor, care, de la n&#259;l&#539;imea unor catedre universitare, pe care &#537;i le-au ap&#259;rat, &#537;i-au dat unii altora note la purtare. Abordez cercetarea Miori&#539;ei f&#259;r&#259; polemici, cu tot respectul pentru deficien&#539;ele fire&#537;ti din cercetarea anterioar&#259;, mai mult polemic&#259; dect &#537;tiin&#539;ific&#259;, &#537;i m&#259; sprijin pe teoriile unor speciali&#537;ti de renume mondial, neimplica&#539;i n disputele noastre fratricide. S-au f&#259;cut multe &#537;i jalnice erori din cercetarea Miori&#539;ei, desigur nu din rea inten&#539;ie, ci scuzabile sau de la caz la caz iertabile. Rezum aici cteva erori principale, printre multe altele prezentate n analiza de peste trei sute de pagini din carte, &#537;i cum am ncercat s&#259; le ndrept. Las altora mai tineri &#537;i mai competen&#539;i s&#259; duc&#259; mai departe &#537;tafeta datoriei noastre fa&#539;&#259; de str&#259;mo&#537;ii care ne-au l&#259;sat Miori&#539;a &#537;i fa&#539;&#259; de cultura universal&#259;. S&#259; nu le pese de ni&#537;te cozi de topor &#537;i ignoran&#539;i n&#259;imi&#539;i s&#259; denigreze Miori&#539;a, care, nemai&#537;tiind cum s&#259;-&#537;i ndeplineasc&#259; misiunea, i vor ataca la persoan&#259;. Cum bine zicea Voltaire: Cel mai r&#259;u critic este cel ce denigreaz&#259; pentru a-&#537;i ascunde ignoran&#539;a (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Le pire critique est celui qui dnigre pour cacher son ignorance</i>).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-indent:14.2pt'><span lang=RO style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span>Cuvntul <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>lege</i> apare n peste dou&#259; sute de variante ale Miori&#539;ei. Cei mai mul&#539;i cercet&#259;tori anteriori sunt siguri c&#259; este vorba de o lege juridic&#259;: Ovid Densusianu, academicianul Pavel Apostol fost Pl Erds, Adrian Fochi, Romulus Vulc&#259;nescu, ba chiar &#537;i Mircea Eliade, care aprob&#259; f&#259;r&#259; rezerve concluziile marxist-lenini&#537;tilor Erds &#537;i Fochi. Orientarea juridic&#259; a mpins cercetarea pe un f&#259;ga&#537; gre&#537;it, ne-a mpiedicat s&#259; &#537;tim care este cauza &#537;i scopul uciderii, despre ce este vorba n text &#537;i ne-au min&#539;it c&#259; atitudinea ciobanului ar fi a&#537;a cum au priceput-o ei: exact de-a-ndoaselea. Unii din noi ne-am l&#259;sat impresiona&#539;i de autorit&#259;&#539;ile &#537;tiin&#539;ifice &#537;i am luat de bune abera&#539;iile lor. Al&#539;ii ne-am dat seama de erorile din gndirea lor &#537;i ne-am indignat.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-indent:14.2pt;mso-pagination: widow-orphan'><span lang=RO style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Cum a fost posibil ca niciun savant s&#259; nu fi verificat n dic&#539;ionar cuvntul <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>lege</i>? n toate dic&#539;ionarele romne&#537;ti cuvntul <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>lege</i> are dou&#259; n&#539;elesuri, unul juridic &#537;i unul religios, dup&#259; cum e domeniul de folosin&#539;&#259; &#537;i contextul. Dic&#539;ionarele mai ample arat&#259; c&#259; sensul juridic este relativ recent, pe cnd n&#539;elesul religios este mai vechi, e singurul cunoscut n cultura popular&#259; oral&#259; &#537;i continu&#259; s&#259; fie dominant pn&#259; chiar &#537;i la scriitori contemporani cu noi, cnd vor s&#259; redea o atmosfer&#259; &#539;&#259;r&#259;neasc&#259;. Este necesar s&#259; &#537;tim dac&#259; poe&#539;ii populari, autori ai variantelor Miori&#539;ei, folosesc cuvntul <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>lege</i> n sens juridic sau religios, adic&#259; dac&#259; contextul e juridic sau religios. Trebuie s&#259; &#537;tim dac&#259; uciderea ciobanului porne&#537;te de la o motivare juridic&#259; sau religioas&#259;, s&#259; &#537;tim dac&#259; poezia nf&#259;&#539;i&#537;eaz&#259; o ac&#539;iune juridic&#259; sau religioas&#259;. Mesajul literar este juridic sau religios? Concluzia mea este c&#259; <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>lege</i> n Miori&#355;a are n&#539;elesul de <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>nomos</i>, ordinea din cosmos, a&#537;a cum au ar&#259;tat Dumitru Caracostea &#537;i Constantin Noica, dar nu au fost lua&#539;i n serios. Sensul religios al cuvntului <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>lege</i> implic&#259; un omor cu o cauz&#259; religioas&#259; &#537;i un scop religios. Ac&#539;iunea ciobanilor nu are un temei juridic, ci religios. Ei practic&#259; un ritual arhaic, de ini&#539;iere, a&#537;a cum a afirmat Alexandru Amzulescu. Ciobanul nu este un condamnat, ci un ales pentru un ritual n&#259;l&#539;&#259;tor, cum a ar&#259;tat cercet&#259;torul Ion Filipciuc.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-indent:14.2pt'><span lang=RO style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Sunt mai multe cuvinte &#537;i expresii ce par nefire&#537;ti. Cercetarea anterioar&#259; nu le-a dat nicio aten&#539;ie sau le-a n&#539;eles cum le-a n&#539;eles. Fochi exprim&#259; p&#259;rerea unanim&#259; c&#259; expresia <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>tras printr-un inel</i> este o compara&#539;ie ca s&#259; &#537;tim c&#259; ciobanul e sub&#539;irel. Nimeni nu s-a ntrebat ce nseamn&#259; expresiile din variante: <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>str&#259;inel ca un inel, str&#259;inel ca o lun&#259; de inel, sprintenel ca o lume de inel </i>&#537;i altele. Acestea &#537;i multe alte versuri sunt relicve ale unor metafore deteriorate. ntreg portretul ciobanului prezint&#259; nu nf&#259;&#539;i&#537;area lui exterioar&#259;, ci profilul moral &#537;i spiritual. Enigmaticul cuvnt <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>ortoman</i> nu poate nsemna bogat n turme, voinic, viteaz sau bogat, cum s-a presupus, ceea ce ar fi o informa&#539;ie redundant&#259;, pe cnd n Miori&#539;a nimic nu este redundant. <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Ortoman</i> poate exprima o nsu&#537;ire l&#259;untric&#259;. nsu&#537;irile aparent concrete ale ciobanului sunt simboluri pentru ceva abstract, legat de procedurile de ini&#539;iere. Metaforele reconstituite dezv&#259;luie c&#259; ciobanul a trecut printr-un rit de ini&#539;iere, care l calific&#259; pentru ritualul de pasaj spre cea mai nalt&#259; treapt&#259; ini&#539;iatic&#259;, o moarte ritual&#259; simbolic&#259; &#537;i o nunt&#259; cosmic&#259;, nunta sfnt&#259;, bine-cunoscuta hierogamie. Din mai multe versuri rezult&#259; c&#259; el poate juca rolul unui erou mitologic, care rennoie&#537;te lumea.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-indent:14.2pt'><span lang=RO style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>S-a tot spus c&#259; poemul na&#539;ional nf&#259;&#539;i&#537;eaz&#259; lupta de clas&#259;, conflicte regionale dintre ciobani, criminalitate, ho&#539;ii, invidie &#537;i ura mpotriva str&#259;inului. Nimeni nu s-a ntrebat:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-indent:14.2pt'><span lang=RO style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span>- Cum pot ciobanii s&#259; fie din trei regiuni diferite &#537;i totu&#537;i sunt fra&#539;i? Eu consider c&#259; ciobanii, proveni&#539;i din diferite regiuni, sunt nfr&#259;&#539;i&#539;i ntr-o fr&#259;&#539;ie profesional&#259; cu o coeziune sacr&#259;. Cine a mai pomenit s&#259; existe clase sociale ntre fra&#539;i sau ntr-o fr&#259;&#539;ie profesional&#259;?<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:0cm;text-align:justify;text-indent:14.2pt; mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><![if !supportLists]><span lang=RO style='font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>-<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span lang=RO style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Cum pot ei s&#259; fie fra&#539;i sau veri primari &#537;i totu&#537;i unul este str&#259;in? Consider c&#259; personajul principal este v&#259;zut ca un nstr&#259;inat, fiindc&#259; el este individualist &#537;i se simte mai acas&#259; n sfera muzicii, poeziei &#537;i stelelor.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-indent:14.2pt'><span lang=RO style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-indent:14.2pt'><span lang=RO style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify'><span lang=RO style='font-size: 11.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Not&#259;: Pentru fluiditatea textului, preciz&#259;rile bibliografice &#537;i notele de subsol se pot g&#259;si n <i>Miori&#539;a  Izvorul nemuririi</i>, Editura Alcor EDIMPEX SRL, Bucure&#537;ti 2016, 2017.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <center>&nbsp;<br> <FORM ACTION="../cgi-bin/mycgi.pl" NAME="myform"> <BUTTON NAME="go" TYPE="input" onclick="origina()" ><STRONG>Home</STRONG></BUTTON> </FORM> <script language=javascript> function origina() { parent.location.href="index.html" } </script> <SCRIPT TYPE="text/javascript"> function blinker() { if (document.forms.myform.go.style.color == 'blue') document.forms.myform.go.style.color='red'; else document.forms.myform.go.style.color='blue'; setTimeout('blinker()',500); } blinker() </SCRIPT> <tr><td align= "center">ALTERNATIVA / THE ALTERNATIVE / L'ALTERNATIVE - Politica, cultura, stiri, publicitate </center> </td></tr></table> </body> </html>